London health services facing blood shortage ahead of Olympics
27 June 2012
New statistics from the UK blood services, NHS Blood and
Transplant (NHSBT), show a gap between demand and supply of blood type O
Rh Negative (O Negative) this summer.
They underline an urgent need for O Negative donors to come forward
ahead of the Olympics in July.
The publication of the statistics coincided with the annual World
Blood Donor Day earlier this month. NHSBT marked the occasion with a
special blood donation session at the Tower of London, collecting
blood from the Beefeaters.
Around the jubilee celebrations demand for type O Negative blood
was 69% higher than the number of donations being made, mirroring
past public holidays such as Easter (25% higher demand than
donations) and Christmas (29% higher demand than donations).
All blood types are needed to build stocks in advance of an
exceptionally busy summer, but there is a particular need for O
Negative donors to prepare for The Olympics. An estimated 1.2
million people and 15,000 athletes are expected to visit London as
part of the Olympic Games, whose blood type may not be known, so
should they need a transfusion O Negative blood is likely to be
needed. The increased demands on stocks will be compounded by low
numbers of donors coming forward in the midst of the disruption and
distraction of the celebrations.
Beefeaters at the Tower of London roll their sleeves up to give
blood as part of a drive to build stocks ahead of the Olympics. (PRNewsFoto/NHS
Blood and Transplant).
Universal blood type
Type O Negative blood, often called the universal blood type, can
be transfused into any patient regardless of their own blood type
and is used in over a tenth (10.5%) of hospital procedures.
Increased demand during holiday periods is often due to health
services preparing for treatments over holiday periods including
accidents, which may require O Negative blood to treat patients
quickly when their blood group is not known.
Although O Negative blood is in the highest demand, it is also in
very limited supply. An estimated 7% of the eligible population
(2.38m people) have O Negative blood and just 139,000 of these are
donors, a number that has declined 19% in the last ten years. Their
contributions are vital for treatments of other blood groups in
emergency situations but also to treat others of their own blood
type since they can only be transfused with O Negative blood.
NHSBT spokesperson Jon Latham said: "Without O Negative blood
donors many live saving procedures could be delayed or made more
risky for patients and of course we wouldn't be able to give
transfusions to people with O Negative at all since they can only
take blood of their own type. We're appealing to this elite group of
blood donors to help us prepare for the unprecedented demand
expected around the Olympics to make sure our health services have
the essential stocks they need. And if you don't know whether you
are O Negative or not, donating blood is the perfect way to find
People of all blood types who would like to help with the
national stock build appeal are encouraged to act now before the
Olympics and make an appointment at
http://www.blood.co.uk or by calling 0300-123-23-23.
- A 30% blood stock build increase is needed to combat the
drop in donations as people become distracted and their day to
day routines are disrupted by the celebrations. Over 1 million
additional visitors to the UK could also add to demand for blood
due to illness or injury during the Games.
- New donation criteria recently introduced by NHS Blood and
Transplant means that men can now donate blood more frequently
bringing their total annual donation opportunities to four times
- There are four main blood groups — O, A, B and AB. Group O
is the most common and therefore the most in demand. Over 95% of
the blood collected is processed into its main components — red
cells, platelets and plasma. A regular supply of blood is vital
as red cells last only 35 days and platelets only seven days.
- Negative blood types are rarer among our indigenous
population, which places more need on people of these blood
types to donate.
- Compared with global blood types, however, the UK has a
lower than average percentage of types B+ (8% UK vs. 20% global)
and AB+ (3% UK vs. 5% global) creating a potential greater
need for these blood types.
- NHSBT collects approximately two million units of blood each
year from 1.4 million blood donors.
- The NHS needs 7,000 voluntary donations of blood daily.
- Around 4% of the eligible population are active blood
- A unit of blood is measured as 470mls (or just under a
- Female whole blood donors can give blood every 16 weeks,
while male blood donors must wait 12 weeks between donations.